## Symbol Rate Calculator

Data Rate (DR): | |

Modulation Factor (m): | |

Forward Eror Correction (FEC): |

Symbol Rate: |

## Symbol & Baud Rate Information

Symbol Rate or Baudrate is the number of symbol changes per second made to the signal. According to the modulation coding method (MODCOD) used each symbol can represent 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. bits of transmission rate data. So for example, when BPSK modulation is used the symbol rate is the same as the bit rate because 1 bit of data is transmitted per symbol.

The rate at which symbols are transmitted is the baud rate.

SR – Symbol Rate

FEC – Forward Error Correction

DR – Data Rate

m – Modulation Factor

sps – Symbols per second

Bits per Symbol (modulation factor)

- BPSK = 1
- QPSK = 2
- 8PSK = 3
- 8QAM or 8APSK= 3
- 16QAM or 16 APSK = 4
- 32QAM or 32 APSK = 5
- 64QAM or 64 APSK = 6
- 128QAM or 128 APSK = 7
- 256QAM or 256 APSK = 8

**Symbol Rate Formula**

Symbol Rate = DR / (m x FEC)

**Example of Symbol Rate Calculation**

Data Rate is 2048 kbps

FEC ¾

Modulation type 8QAM

*Symbol Rate = Data Rate / (m x FEC)*

**SR = 2048 / (3 x 0.75 ) = 910.2 ksps**

Many modern satellite modems will calculate the symbol rate for you in the configuration pages.